Here is a look at former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, who was overthrown in February 2011 in a popular uprising:
Mubarak was thrust into office in October 1981 when Islamist radicals assassinated President Anwar Sadat at a military parade.
September 27, 2005 - Mubarak is sworn in for a fifth consecutive term after winning the first multi-candidate presidential vote on September 7. Parliament had voted in May 2005 to change the constitution to allow the first contested presidential elections. Rights groups said it was marred by abuses.
November 29, 2010 - A new parliamentary election virtually eliminates opposition to Mubarak's ruling party in the assembly before a 2011 presidential vote. The Muslim Brotherhood and other opposition groups boycott the parliamentary election.
January 25, 2011 - Anti-government protests erupt across Egypt, driven by discontent over poverty, repression and corruption.
January 28 - Mubarak orders troops and tanks into cities to quell demonstrations. Thousands cheer news of intervention by the army, which is widely seen as a neutral force in politics, unlike police who are regularly deployed to stifle dissent.
February 10 - Mubarak says national dialogue is under way, transfers powers to vice-president but refuses to leave office immediately. Protesters in Cairo's Tahrir Square are enraged.
February 11 - Mubarak steps down and a military council led by Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi takes over.
April 12 - Mubarak is hospitalised after being questioned by prosecutors. The next day, Egypt orders Mubarak detained for questioning on accusations he abused his power, embezzled funds and had protesters killed.
August 3 - Mubarak, wheeled into a courtroom cage on a bed to face trial, denies the charges against him. His two sons, Gamal and Alaa, also deny the charges. In subsequent sessions, Mubarak always appears on a hospital stretcher.
June 2, 2012 - Mubarak is sentenced to life in prison for his role in the killing of protesters and is flown from the Cairo court to Tora prison on the outskirts of the capital, where he is admitted to a hospital facility.
January 13, 2013 - A court orders a retrial of the former president, following an appeal over the killing of protesters.
(Reporting by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit)