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TIMELINE-Zika's origin and global spread
February 25, 2016 / 7:47 PM / 10 months ago

TIMELINE-Zika's origin and global spread

The following timeline charts the origin and spread of the Zika virus from its
discovery nearly 70 years ago:
    
    1947: Scientists researching yellow fever in Uganda's Zika Forest identify
the virus in a rhesus monkey
    1948: Virus recovered from Aedes africanus mosquito in Zika Forest
    1952: First human cases detected in Uganda and Tanzania
    1960s-80s: Zika detected in mosquitoes and monkeys across equatorial Africa
    1960s-80s: Zika found in equatorial Asia, including India, Indonesia,
Malaysia and Pakistan
    2007: Zika spreads from Africa and Asia, first large outbreak on Pacific
island of Yap
    2012: Researchers identify two distinct lineages of the virus, African and
Asian
    2013-14: Zika outbreaks in French Polynesia, Easter Island, the Cook Islands
and New Caledonia. Retrospective analysis shows possible link to birth defects
and severe neurological complications in babies in French Polynesia
    March 2, 2015: Brazil reports illness characterized by skin rash in
northeastern states
    July 17: Brazil reports detection of neurological disorders in newborns
associated with history of infection
    Oct. 22: Colombia confirms cases of Zika
    Oct. 30: Brazil reports increase in microcephaly, abnormally small heads,
among newborns
    Nov. 11: Brazil declares public health emergency 
    November 2015-January 2016: Cases reported in Suriname, Panama, El Salvador,
Mexico, Guatemala, Paraguay, Venezuela, French Guiana,  Martinique, Puerto Rico,
Guyana, Ecuador, Barbados, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Curacao,
Jamaica
    Feb. 1: World Health Organization (WHO) declares public health emergency of
international concern
    Feb. 2: First case of Zika transmission in United States; local health
officials say likely contracted through sex, not mosquito bite
    Feb. 5: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says virus being
actively transmitted in 30 countries, mostly in the Americas
    Feb. 8: U.S. President Barack Obama requests $1.9 billion to fight Zika
    Feb. 18: CDC adds Aruba and Bonaire to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, bringing total to 32
    Feb. 23: CDC adds Trinidad and Tobago and Marshall Islands to countries and
territories with active outbreaks, bringing total to 34
    Feb. 25: Brazil says confirmed microcephaly cases number more than 580 and
considers most of them to be related to Zika infections in the mothers, with an
additional 4,100 suspected cases of microcephaly
    Feb. 27: France detects first sexually transmitted case of Zika 
    March 8: WHO advises pregnant women to avoid areas with Zika outbreak and
said sexual transmission of the virus is "relatively common"
    March 19: CDC adds Cuba to countries and territories with active outbreaks,
bringing total to 38
    March 22: CDC adds Dominica to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, bringing total to 39
    March 31: The World Health Organization says there is a strong scientific
consensus that Zika can cause the birth defect microcephaly as well as
Guillain-Barre syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can result in
paralysis, though conclusive proof may take months or years 
    April 1: CDC adds Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia to countries and
territories with active outbreaks, bringing total to 40
    April 4: CDC adds Fiji to countries and territories with active outbreaks,
bringing total to 41
    April 13: The CDC concludes that infection with the Zika virus in pregnant
women is a cause of the birth defect microcephaly and other severe brain
abnormalities in babies. CDC adds St. Lucia to countries and territories with
active outbreaks, bringing total to 42
    April 18: CDC adds Belize to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, bringing total to 43
    April 25: Canada confirms first sexually transmitted Zika case
    April 29: Puerto Rico reports first death related to Zika, according to the
CDC. The island territory also confirms 683 Zika cases, including 65 pregnant
women, and five suspected cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome from Zika
    May 4: Panama confirms four microcephaly cases tied to Zika
    May 6: Spain has first case of Zika-related brain defect in a fetus      
    May 9: CDC adds Papua New Guinea, Saint Barthelemy and Peru to countries and
territories with active outbreaks, bringing total to 46
    May 12: CDC adds Grenada to countries and territories with active outbreaks,
bringing total to 47
    May 13: Puerto Rico reports first case of Zika-related microcephaly
    May 20: WHO says an outbreak of Zika virus on the African island chain of
Cape Verde is of the same strain as the one blamed for birth abnormalities in
Brazil
    May 26: CDC adds Argentina to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, bringing total to 48
    June 9: WHO updates guidelines on prevention of sexual transmission of the
Zika virus, including advising women living in areas where the virus is being
transmitted to delay getting pregnant
    June 14: El Salvador confirms first case of microcephaly linked to Zika
    June 30: CDC adds Anguilla to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, bringing total to 49 
    July 8: CDC confirms a Utah resident's death from the previous month is the
first Zika-related death in the continental United States
    July 14: CDC adds Saint Eustatius to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, bringing total to 50
    July 15: New York City's health department reports the first female-to-male
transmission of the Zika virus.
    July 18: CDC reports the caregiver of Utah man who died of Zika tested
positive for virus, raising questions about its spread
    July 19: Florida health officials investigate a case of Zika virus infection
that may have been caused by local mosquito bite
    July 22: New York City health officials reports first baby born with
Zika-related birth defect
    July 25: Spain reports first case in Europe of baby born with Zika-related
defect; CDC issues updated recommendations for preventing and testing for Zika
infection, warning that the virus can be transmitted through unprotected sex
with an infected female partner
    July 26: Honduras detects 8 cases of babies with Zika-related defect; CDC
adds Saba to countries and territories with active outbreaks with total at 51
    July 27: Paraguay reports first cases of microcephaly linked to Zika
    July 29: Florida authorities report what is believed to be the first
evidence of local Zika transmission in the continental United States
    Aug. 2: CDC adds Antigua, Barbuda, and Turks and Caicos to countries and
territories with active outbreaks, bringing total to 54
    Aug. 3: U.S. researchers said they launched Zika vaccine clinical trial
    Aug. 11: CDC adds Cayman Islands to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, bringing total to 55
    Aug. 12: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declares a public
health emergency in Puerto Rico over Zika with 10,690 laboratory-confirmed cases
    Aug. 13: Brazil reports 1,835 confirmed cases of microcephaly
    Aug. 16: Haiti reports first case of microcephaly linked to Zika
    Aug. 17: Guatemala confirms first case of newborn with microcephaly linked
to Zika
    Aug. 19: Florida governor says five cases of Zika are believed to have been
contracted in Miami Beach, the second area in Miami-Dade county where the virus
is spreading.
    Aug. 25: CDC adds The Bahamas and the United States to countries and
territories with active outbreaks, bringing total to 57
    Aug. 26: FDA recommends that all blood donated in the United States and its
territories be tested for Zika virus, starting with 11 states in the first
phase; Nicaragua confirms first microcephaly birth linked to Zika
    Aug. 27-29: Singapore confirms first case of locally transmitted Zika virus,
which rise to 56 cases two days later
    Aug. 30: Confirmed cases in Singapore rise to 82, with some of the latest
infections detected beyond the area of initial outbreak. Several countries
advise pregnant women or those trying to conceive to avoid traveling to the
city-state. Australia, Taiwan, South Korea and the United States issue travel
warnings
    Aug. 31: CDC adds Singapore and the British Virgin Islands to countries and
territories with active outbreaks, bringing tally to 58 (The CDC groups together
Antigua and Barbuda in its updated official count)
    Sept. 3: Malaysia detects first case of locally transmitted Zika
    Sept. 5: Philippines confirms first case of Zika virus likely to have been
transmitted locally
    Sept. 6: Florida confirms 56 locally transmitted cases, 577 travel-related
infections, and 80 infections involving pregnant women
    Sept. 8: Singapore reports 283 cases of locally transmitted Zika virus
    Sept. 10: Singapore locally transmitted Zika cases rise to 329
    Sept. 13: Thailand said it has recorded 200 cases of Zika since Januuary,
the first time the health ministry has confirmed the number of cases this year.
    Sept. 16: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports 20,800
confirmed cases of Zika virus in U.S. states and Territories. The department
says there are 3,176 confirmed cases in U.S. states and District of Columbia. As
of Sept. 8, the department said there were more than 1,880 pregnant women with
evidence of Zika virus in U.S. states, District of Columbia and U.S. territories
    Sept. 19: Florida's governor declares Wynwood neighborhood in Miami
Zika-free but the CDC leaves travel warning for Miami Beach
    Sept. 26: CDC adds St. Kitts and Nevis to countries and territories with
active outbreaks, bringing tally to 59
    Sept. 29: CDC issues travel advisory urging pregnant women to postpone
non-essential travel to 11 Southeast Asian countries in connection with the Zika
virus and Brazil reports 1,949 confirmed cases of microcephaly believed to be
linked to Zika infections in pregnant women
    Oct. 13: Florida reports new area of transmission in Miami and says it had
164 cases of Zika caused by local mosquitoes
    Oct. 19: U.S. health officials create color-coded system for Florida's
Miami-Dade County to distinguish risks of transmission in certain areas
    Oct. 27: Myanmar confirms fist case of Zika virus infection 
    Oct. 28: Brazil says there are 2,063 confirmed cases of microcephaly
    Nov. 16: CDC adds Singapore and Palau to countries and territories with
active outbreaks, bringing tally to 61 
    Nov. 18: WHO declares end of Zika emergency but said more action needed
through a "robust program"
    Nov. 21: CDC adds Montserrat to countries and territories with active
outbreaks, pushing total to 62
    Nov. 22: CDC says as of Nov. 16 there were 4,255 cases of Zika reported in
the continental United States and Hawaii. Of the total reported Zika cases, 35
are believed to be through sexual transmission and 1 case from lab exposure.
    Florida removes parts of Miami Beach in Florida from active transmission
zone areas. The health department also reports 1,201 cases of Zika with 236
cases locally acquired
    Nov. 28: Texas reports first case of Zika spread by local mosquitoes
    Dec. 2: CDC says all pregnant women in the U.S. should be evaluated for
possible Zika virus exposure during each prenatal care visit
    Dec. 3: Brazil confirms 2,228 cases of microcephaly linked with Zika, and is
still investigating another 3,173 cases
    Dec. 9: Florida Department of Health says all areas cleared of active
transmission in Florida
    CDC says as of Dec. 8 there were 4,575 cases of Zika reported in the
continental United States and Hawaii. Of the total, 38 cases are believed to be
the result of sexual transmission. One case was the result of lab exposure
    Dec. 14: U.S. researchers say about 6 percent of women in the United States
infected with Zika during pregnancy had fetuses or babies with birth defects
    CDC issues travel advisory warning pregnant women to consider postponing
travel to Brownsville, Texas because of risk of contracting virus  
    SOURCES: World Health Organization, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, Reuters

    
 (Reporting by Ben Hirschler; Compiled and edited by the Americas Desk)

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