WASHINGTON The Clovis people, known for their
distinctive spear points, likely were not the first humans in
the Americas, according to research placing their presence as
more recent than previously believed.
Using advanced radiocarbon dating techniques, researchers
writing in the journal Science on Thursday said the Clovis
people, hunters of large Ice Age animals like mammoths and
mastodons, dated from about 13,100 to 12,900 years ago.
That would make the Clovis culture, known from artifacts
discovered at various sites including the town of Clovis, New
Mexico, both younger and shorter-lived than previously thought.
Previous estimates had dated the culture to about 13,600 years
These people long had been seen as the first humans in the
New World, but the new dates suggest their culture thrived at
about the same time or after others also in the Americas.
Michael Waters, director of Texas A&M University's Center
for the Study of the First Americans, called the research the
final nail in the coffin of the so-called "Clovis first" theory
of human origins in the New World.
Waters said he thinks the first people probably arrived in
the Americas between 15,000 and 25,000 years ago.
"We've got to stop thinking about the peopling of the
Americas as a singular event," Waters said in an interview.
"And we have to start now thinking about the peopling of
the Americas as a process, with people coming over here,
probably arriving at different times, maybe taking different
routes and coming from different places in northeast Asia."
Waters and co-author Thomas Stafford, a radiocarbon dating
expert, tested samples from various Clovis archeological sites
to try to get a more accurate accounting of their age.
Technological advances enabled them to more precisely pinpoint
dates for some Clovis sites excavated in North America.
The theory has been that the Clovis people first migrated
out of northeast Asia across the Bering land bridge from
Siberia into Alaska and traveled through a ice-free corridor
into North America, populating that continent while their
descendants journeyed into South America.
Asked who were the first people in the Americas if not the
Clovis, Waters answered, "That's a good question."
"I think that's what we've got to work toward -- a new
model for the peopling of the Americas, and I think we need to
create a coherent model that's based on genetic data,
geological evidence as well as archeological data."