LONDON (Reuters) - Europe's economic crisis and new financial rules have finally forced many clubs to do their sums before rushing into soccer's version of the January sales.
England's Premier League, set for a fresh windfall from television deals this year, has once again led spending in the month-long transfer window which closed on Thursday.
Queens Park Rangers and Newcastle United both invested heavily in an attempt to remain in the top flight, while U.S.-owned Liverpool also splashed out after a lacklustre first half of the season.
At the other end of the scale, Spanish clubs spent very little. That is a consequence of the financial problems many of them face in a country stuck in recession and where Real Madrid and Barcelona take the lion's share of TV revenues.
"Premier League clubs have been relatively restrained in their player transfer fee spending, in spite of the upcoming uplift in their broadcasting revenues of between 20 and 30 million pounds each from next season," said Dan Jones of the sports business group at Deloitte.
Premier League clubs spent 120 million pounds over the month, according to business services group Deloitte, down from a peak of 225 million pounds two years ago.
Italian clubs were the second highest spenders, Deloitte said, paying out around 70 percent of the Premier League total. Top division clubs in France and Germany spent less than half as much as their English counterparts.
Spanish La Liga clubs invested only 11.1 million euros (9.5 million pounds), according to figures from Barcelona-based Prime Time Sport.
Top teams also now have to contend with UEFA's Financial Fair Play rules which mean clubs have to move towards breakeven or risk exclusion from European competition.
"There is this double effect of Financial Fair Play and also the financial markets which have made the financing of clubs a bit more complicated," said Emmanuel Hembert of management consultancy A.T. Kearney.
"Some clubs are willing to take lower transfer fees just to get lower salary bills because profitability is now key."
UEFA President Michel Platini and Arsenal manager Arsene Wenger have both criticised the window as distorting competition by allowing teams to make wholesale changes to squads.
Some managers are also wary of trying to integrate new players into their ranks in the middle of a season.
League leaders Manchester United spent a reported 15 million pounds to buy 20-year-old winger Wilfried Zaha from Crystal Palace but loaned him back to the second-tier club until the end of the season.
The window does give clubs a chance to offload misfits.
Premier League champions Manchester City turned sellers when they sold striker Mario Balotelli to AC Milan after the mercurial Italian fell out with the club.
Dutchman Wesley Sneijder moved to Galatasaray in Turkey after a dispute with Inter Milan. He will be joined in Istanbul by Didier Drogba, a sign of the growing financial clout of the Turkish club, who are in the last 16 of the Champions League.
For all the money spent, it was a free transfer that stole the headlines on deadline day. The reaction to David Beckham's short-term move to Qatari-owned Paris St Germain showed his celebrity remains undiminished despite his veteran status.
Additional reporting by Iain Rogers in Madrid; editing by Mark Meadows and Pritha Sarkar