September 28 - Western governments have vowed to impose new sanctions on Burma after its crackdown on protesters demanding an end to 45 years of military rule and economic hardship.
Here is an overview of the sanctions imposed over the years against Burma.
— Visa restrictions on senior junta figures and a ban on defence exports since 1988.
— Australia said on September 27, 2007 it planned targeted sanctions against leaders of the regime.
— Limited trade sanctions. Permits are required for exports to Myanmar and one other country (Belarus).
— In its 1996 common position on Burma, the 27-member European Union confirmed an arms embargo imposed in 1990 and the suspension of defence cooperation in 1991. It also set conditions for assistance and imposed a visa ban on senior military and government officials and their families.
— In 1997, citing forced labour issues, it scrapped duty-free access to the EU market for Burma’s products.
— In 2000, it targeted the assets of people linked to economic or political activities of the junta.
— In 2004, the EU prohibited registered companies or organisations from making financial loans or credit available to named state-owned enterprises.
— A ban on visas for military leaders and their families.
— In 1988, broad sanctions imposed after a crackdown on student-led protests.
— In 1997, new investment in Burma by U.S. persons or entities prohibited.
— In 2003, Burma Freedom and Democracy Act banned all imports from Burma, restricted financial services, froze the assets of certain Burma financial institutions, and extended visa restrictions on junta officials.
Congress has renewed the Act annually.
— On September 26, 2007, President George W. Bush announced a tightening of economic sanctions on the leaders of the regime and an expanded visa ban on those responsible for human rights abuses and their families.
— The United States has accused Burma of condoning the use of forced labour. That could lead to restrictions on certain types of foreign assistance, such as funding for government officials and employees to participate in educational and cultural exchange programmes.
Sources: Reuters, Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (www.dfat.gov.au/geo/burma/burma_brief.html), The European Union, (here)
,Bank of England Financial Sanctions (www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/financialsanctions/current
/burma.htm), Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (www.international.gc.ca/trade/sanctions-en.asp), U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/Show
Page&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=10189653079 0 1), U.S. Department of State, (www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35910.htm)