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Meet the 2020 Nobel Prize winners

U.S. academics Paul Milgrom (pictured) and Robert Wilson won the 2020 Nobel Economics on Monday for work on auctions hailed as benefiting buyers and sellers around the world of everything from fishing quotas to aircraft landing slots. Among the insights of the two Stanford University economists is an explanation of how bidders seek to avoid the so-called "winner's curse" of over-paying, and what happens when bidders gain a better understanding of their rivals' sense of value.  



 Silvia Console Battilana/via REUTERS  

U.S. academics Paul Milgrom (pictured) and Robert Wilson won the 2020 Nobel Economics on Monday for work on auctions hailed as benefiting buyers and sellers around the world of everything from fishing quotas to aircraft landing slots. Among the...more

U.S. academics Paul Milgrom (pictured) and Robert Wilson won the 2020 Nobel Economics on Monday for work on auctions hailed as benefiting buyers and sellers around the world of everything from fishing quotas to aircraft landing slots. Among the insights of the two Stanford University economists is an explanation of how bidders seek to avoid the so-called "winner's curse" of over-paying, and what happens when bidders gain a better understanding of their rivals' sense of value. Silvia Console Battilana/via REUTERS  
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Milgrom and Wilson notably came up with formats for selling interrelated items simultaneously. In 1994, U.S. authorities used one of their auction designs to sell radio frequencies to telecom operators, a move since copied in other countries. Wilson showed that rational bidders tend to place bids below their own best estimate of what he called the "common value" - that is, when the value of an item is deemed to be the same for everyone - for fear of paying too much.    



 TT News Agency/Anders Wiklund via REUTERS

Milgrom and Wilson notably came up with formats for selling interrelated items simultaneously. In 1994, U.S. authorities used one of their auction designs to sell radio frequencies to telecom operators, a move since copied in other countries. Wilson...more

Milgrom and Wilson notably came up with formats for selling interrelated items simultaneously. In 1994, U.S. authorities used one of their auction designs to sell radio frequencies to telecom operators, a move since copied in other countries. Wilson showed that rational bidders tend to place bids below their own best estimate of what he called the "common value" - that is, when the value of an item is deemed to be the same for everyone - for fear of paying too much. TT News Agency/Anders Wiklund via REUTERS
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The United Nations' World Food Programme (WFP) won the Nobel Peace Prize for its efforts to combat hunger around the world and improve conditions for peace in areas affected by conflict. The Rome-based organization says it helps some 97 million people in about 88 countries each year, and that one in nine people worldwide still do not have enough to eat. Pictured: WFP Executive Director David Beasley reacts as he speaks to the press in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso following the announcement. 


REUTERS/Anne Mimault  

The United Nations' World Food Programme (WFP) won the Nobel Peace Prize for its efforts to combat hunger around the world and improve conditions for peace in areas affected by conflict. The Rome-based organization says it helps some 97 million...more

The United Nations' World Food Programme (WFP) won the Nobel Peace Prize for its efforts to combat hunger around the world and improve conditions for peace in areas affected by conflict. The Rome-based organization says it helps some 97 million people in about 88 countries each year, and that one in nine people worldwide still do not have enough to eat. Pictured: WFP Executive Director David Beasley reacts as he speaks to the press in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso following the announcement. REUTERS/Anne Mimault  
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The United Nations, which turns 75 this month, has itself won the Nobel Peace Prize in the past, as have several of its agencies, including the High Commissioner for Refugees, the UNICEF children's fund and its peacekeeping forces.     REUTERS/Erik De Castro

The United Nations, which turns 75 this month, has itself won the Nobel Peace Prize in the past, as have several of its agencies, including the High Commissioner for Refugees, the UNICEF children's fund and its peacekeeping forces.   ...more

The United Nations, which turns 75 this month, has itself won the Nobel Peace Prize in the past, as have several of its agencies, including the High Commissioner for Refugees, the UNICEF children's fund and its peacekeeping forces.     REUTERS/Erik De Castro
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American poet Louise Gluck has won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Literature for "her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal".  Pictured: Gluck reacts outside her home in Cambridge, Massachusetts.  REUTERS/Katherine Taylor

American poet Louise Gluck has won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Literature for "her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal".  Pictured: Gluck reacts outside her home in Cambridge, Massachusetts....more

American poet Louise Gluck has won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Literature for "her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal".  Pictured: Gluck reacts outside her home in Cambridge, Massachusetts.  REUTERS/Katherine Taylor
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A professor at Yale University, Gluck, 77, made her debut in 1968 with "Firstborn", and is seen as one of the most prominent poets in American contemporary literature. Her poetry is characterized by "a striving for clarity", the Academy said, with a focus on childhood, family life, and close relationships between parents and siblings.  
  REUTERS/Katherine Taylor

A professor at Yale University, Gluck, 77, made her debut in 1968 with "Firstborn", and is seen as one of the most prominent poets in American contemporary literature. Her poetry is characterized by "a striving for clarity", the Academy said, with a...more

A professor at Yale University, Gluck, 77, made her debut in 1968 with "Firstborn", and is seen as one of the most prominent poets in American contemporary literature. Her poetry is characterized by "a striving for clarity", the Academy said, with a focus on childhood, family life, and close relationships between parents and siblings.  REUTERS/Katherine Taylor
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Emmanuelle Charpentier, director of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin holds a Swedish-themed puppet after winning the 2020 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the development of a method for genome editing.   

|REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch    

Emmanuelle Charpentier, director of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin holds a Swedish-themed puppet after winning the 2020 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the development of a method for genome editing. |REUTERS/Fabrizio...more

Emmanuelle Charpentier, director of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin holds a Swedish-themed puppet after winning the 2020 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the development of a method for genome editing. |REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch    
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Charpentier, who is French, and American Jennifer Doudna share the $1.1 million prize for developing the CRISPR/Cas9 tool to edit the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with precision. They become the sixth and seventh women to win a Nobel for chemistry, joining Marie Curie, who won in 1911, and more recently, Frances Arnold, in 2018.      

REUTERS/Eloy Alonso

Charpentier, who is French, and American Jennifer Doudna share the $1.1 million prize for developing the CRISPR/Cas9 tool to edit the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with precision. They become the sixth and seventh women to win a Nobel for...more

Charpentier, who is French, and American Jennifer Doudna share the $1.1 million prize for developing the CRISPR/Cas9 tool to edit the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with precision. They become the sixth and seventh women to win a Nobel for chemistry, joining Marie Curie, who won in 1911, and more recently, Frances Arnold, in 2018. REUTERS/Eloy Alonso
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Three scientists who unravelled some of the deep mysteries of black holes, the awe-inspiring pockets of the universe where space and time cease to exist, have won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics. Britain's Roger Penrose, professor at the University of Oxford, won half the prize for his proof that black holes are a direct consequence of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.  


Jonathan Brady/Pool

Three scientists who unravelled some of the deep mysteries of black holes, the awe-inspiring pockets of the universe where space and time cease to exist, have won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics. Britain's Roger Penrose, professor at the University...more

Three scientists who unravelled some of the deep mysteries of black holes, the awe-inspiring pockets of the universe where space and time cease to exist, have won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics. Britain's Roger Penrose, professor at the University of Oxford, won half the prize for his proof that black holes are a direct consequence of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. Jonathan Brady/Pool
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German Reinhard Genzel (pictured), of the Max Planck Institute and University of California, Berkeley, and Andrea Ghez, at the University of California, Los Angeles, shared the other half for discovering that an invisible and extremely heavy object governs the orbits of stars at the center of our galaxy. Genzel was on a Zoom call with colleagues when the phone rang. "Just like in the movies, a voice said: 'This is Stockholm'," the 68-year-old astrophysicist told Reuters Television in his cluttered office on the outskirts of Munich. He was flabbergasted by the news: "I cried a little bit."     


REUTERS/Andreas Gebert

German Reinhard Genzel (pictured), of the Max Planck Institute and University of California, Berkeley, and Andrea Ghez, at the University of California, Los Angeles, shared the other half for discovering that an invisible and extremely heavy object...more

German Reinhard Genzel (pictured), of the Max Planck Institute and University of California, Berkeley, and Andrea Ghez, at the University of California, Los Angeles, shared the other half for discovering that an invisible and extremely heavy object governs the orbits of stars at the center of our galaxy. Genzel was on a Zoom call with colleagues when the phone rang. "Just like in the movies, a voice said: 'This is Stockholm'," the 68-year-old astrophysicist told Reuters Television in his cluttered office on the outskirts of Munich. He was flabbergasted by the news: "I cried a little bit." REUTERS/Andreas Gebert
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Ghez - only the fourth woman to be awarded the Physics prize after Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963 and Donna Strickland in 2018 - said she hoped it would inspire others to enter the field. Asked about the moment of discovery, Ghez said: "The first thing is doubt. You have to prove to yourself that what you are really seeing is what you think you are seeing. So, both doubt and excitement," the 55-year-old American said in a call with the committee after receiving the award.  


REUTERS/ Mike Blake

Ghez - only the fourth woman to be awarded the Physics prize after Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963 and Donna Strickland in 2018 - said she hoped it would inspire others to enter the field. Asked about the moment of discovery, Ghez...more

Ghez - only the fourth woman to be awarded the Physics prize after Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963 and Donna Strickland in 2018 - said she hoped it would inspire others to enter the field. Asked about the moment of discovery, Ghez said: "The first thing is doubt. You have to prove to yourself that what you are really seeing is what you think you are seeing. So, both doubt and excitement," the 55-year-old American said in a call with the committee after receiving the award. REUTERS/ Mike Blake
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Two Americans and a Briton won the 2020 Nobel Prize for Medicine for identifying the hepatitis C virus, in work spanning decades that has helped to limit the spread of the fatal disease and develop drugs to cure it. The discoveries by Harvey Alter, Charles Rice and Briton Michael Houghton mean there is now a chance of eradicating the hepatitis C virus - a goal the World Health Organization wants to achieve in the next decade.   
 Claudio Bresciani/TT News Agency

Two Americans and a Briton won the 2020 Nobel Prize for Medicine for identifying the hepatitis C virus, in work spanning decades that has helped to limit the spread of the fatal disease and develop drugs to cure it. The discoveries by Harvey Alter,...more

Two Americans and a Briton won the 2020 Nobel Prize for Medicine for identifying the hepatitis C virus, in work spanning decades that has helped to limit the spread of the fatal disease and develop drugs to cure it. The discoveries by Harvey Alter, Charles Rice and Briton Michael Houghton mean there is now a chance of eradicating the hepatitis C virus - a goal the World Health Organization wants to achieve in the next decade.  Claudio Bresciani/TT News Agency
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"(To) go from basically the beginning-part of this discovery to when it can be successfully treated - this is kind of a rare treat for a basic scientist," Rice, 68, told reporters on a Zoom call. Rice said advances in gene sequencing would make it possible today for researchers to achieve "spectacular" progress towards developing treatments and vaccines for COVID-19.   

Rockefeller University/John Abbott/via REUTERS

"(To) go from basically the beginning-part of this discovery to when it can be successfully treated - this is kind of a rare treat for a basic scientist," Rice, 68, told reporters on a Zoom call. Rice said advances in gene sequencing would make it...more

"(To) go from basically the beginning-part of this discovery to when it can be successfully treated - this is kind of a rare treat for a basic scientist," Rice, 68, told reporters on a Zoom call. Rice said advances in gene sequencing would make it possible today for researchers to achieve "spectacular" progress towards developing treatments and vaccines for COVID-19. Rockefeller University/John Abbott/via REUTERS
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The shared prize recognizes research dating back to the 1960s when Alter (pictured), at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), found that a liver disease that was not hepatitis A or B could be spread through blood transfusions. The disease it causes was named hepatitis C. Its identification made it possible to develop tests to screen bloodbank supplies and greatly reduce the spread of the disease, which can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer.    
  NIH/via REUTERS

The shared prize recognizes research dating back to the 1960s when Alter (pictured), at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), found that a liver disease that was not hepatitis A or B could be spread through blood transfusions. The...more

The shared prize recognizes research dating back to the 1960s when Alter (pictured), at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), found that a liver disease that was not hepatitis A or B could be spread through blood transfusions. The disease it causes was named hepatitis C. Its identification made it possible to develop tests to screen bloodbank supplies and greatly reduce the spread of the disease, which can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer. NIH/via REUTERS
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